Friday, February 26, 2016

Cyberwar Preparations in Australian Defence White Paper 2016

The Australian Government issues a 2016 Defence White Paper  (25 February 2017). As well as big ticket items, such as twelve of the largest conventional submarines in the world, there is provision for cyber-security. The government proposes  800 new jobs in intelligence, space and cyber security. If well trained these personnel will have more military impact than the 12 new submarines. It happens that earlier in the week I prepared a "Hypothetical on Cyberwar Over the South China Sea" for teaching this workforce.

"New and complex non-geographic security threats in cyberspace and space will be an important part of our future security environment. The cyber threat to Australia is growing. Cyber attacks are a real and present threat to the ADF’s warfighting ability as well as to other government agencies and other sectors of Australia’s economy and critical infrastructure." (Page 17).
"2.5 Cyber attacks are a direct threat to the ADF’s warfighting ability given its reliance on information networks. State and non-state actors now have ready access to highly capable and technologically advanced tools to target others through internet-connected systems and we are seeing greater use of offensive cyber operations. This trend is likely to continue." (Page 53)
"2.51     Cyber threats also have impacts well beyond Defence, with the potential to attack other Australian government agencies, all sectors of Australia’s economy and critical infrastructure and, in the case of state actors, conduct state-based espionage including against Australian defence industry. The Australian Signals Directorate detected over 1,200 cyber security incidents in 2015, including attacks on government agencies and non-government sectors. Australian defence industry was one of the key non-government sectors targeted in that period, along with energy, banking and financial services, communications and transport. Cyber attacks also threaten Australia’s secure access to the global communications system which is critical to Australia’s prosperity." (page 54)
"3.19     To counter the growing threat of cyber attack, the Government is improving our national cyber security capabilities. Defence’s cyber security capabilities will be strengthened to protect the ADF’s warfighting and information networks. Defence will contribute to the Government’s enhanced national cyber security efforts, which include better coordinated cyber security capabilities and working with industry and academia to counter the threat of cyber attack." (Page 75)
"4.19     The Government is committed to ensuring that Australia can address the growing cyber threat including through enhanced cooperation with the United States and our other international partners. Defence makes a critical contribution to Australia’s whole-of-government cyber-security efforts, ensuring the integrity of Australian government information and systems. This includes the invaluable work of the Australian Signals Directorate. Defence will continue to work closely with other agencies to protect Australian interests in the cyber domain, including through the multi-agency Australian Cyber Security Centre.
4.20     The Government will strengthen Defence’s cyber capabilities to protect itself and other critical Australian government systems from malicious cyber intrusion and disruption. Enhancing the resilience of Defence networks, including networks used by our deployed forces, and the capability of the Australian Cyber Security Centre are key areas of focus in strengthening Australia’s cyber defences. This will include considerable new investment in strengthening the Defence cyber workforce, including new military and APS positions and training programs.
4.21     The Government will also establish a research and development capability to help strengthen the defences of the ADF’s military information systems against cyber attack." (Page 90)
"6.17     Within this total workforce of around 18,200 FTE, enhancements to intelligence, space and cyber security capabilities will involve 800 new APS positions. Four hundred new positions will be created in information technology support, simulation, support to Navy engineering and logistics, security, force design and analysis, and strategic and international policy, including civilian policy officers posted overseas." (Page 152)

Table of Contents

 Minister’s Introduction 9
Executive Summary 13
Strategy 14
Australia’s strategic outlook 14
Australia’s defence strategy 17
Capability 18
A more capable, agile and potent future force 18
Australian defence industry and innovation 20
Shipbuilding 21
Defence posture – more active and internationally engaged 21
International engagement 22
Defence preparedness 22
People 23
Resources 24
Reform 24
Funding 24
Implementation 25
Chapter One: The Government’s Approach to Defence 29
The purpose of this Defence White Paper 29
Why now? 30
Managing strategic risk 32
Chapter Two: Strategic Outlook 39
Australia’s security environment 39
The United States and China 41
The rules-based global order 44
The threat of terrorism and foreign terrorist fighters 46
State fragility 48
Military modernisation 49
Cyber and space 51
Regional security environments 53
Australia’s borders and offshore territories 53
Our immediate neighbourhood 54
South East Asia 56
Indonesia 59
North Asia 60
South Asia and the Indian Ocean Rim 61
The Middle East 63
Weapons of Mass Destruction 64
Chapter Three: Australia’s Defence Strategy 67
Australia’s Strategic Defence Framework 68
Strategic Defence Interests 68
A secure, resilient Australia, with secure northern approaches and
proximate sea lines of communication 68
A secure nearer region, encompassing maritime South East Asia
and the South Pacific 69
A stable Indo-Pacific region and a rules-based global order 70
Strategic Defence Objectives 71
Deter, deny and defeat attacks on or threats to Australia and its national
interests, and northern approaches 71
Make effective military contributions to support the security of maritime
South East Asia and support the governments of Papua New Guinea,
Timor-Leste and of Pacific Island Countries to build and strengthen
their security 74
Contribute military capabilities to coalition operations that support
Australia’s interests in a rules-based global order 75
Implications for force structure and force posture 77
Chapter Four: The Future Australian Defence Force 83
Designing the future force 84
Capability priorities 86
Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, Space, Electronic
Warfare, and Cyber Security 86
Maritime Operations and Anti-Submarine Warfare Forces 89
Strike and Air Combat 94
Land Combat and Amphibious Warfare 97
Key Enablers 100
Air and Sea Lift 106
Industry, innovation, research and development 108
A new approach to Australian defence industry policy 108
A new approach to defence innovation 111
Shipbuilding 113
Chapter Five: Positioning Defence for Tomorrow’s Challenges 117
International engagement 117
International defence relationships 120
The Australia-United States Alliance 121
New Zealand 124
Indonesia 125
The South Pacific 126
Timor-Leste 128
South East Asia 128
North Asia 132
South Asia 134
Global relationships 135
Defence preparedness 140
Current operations 141
Chapter Six: People 145
Growing the integrated Defence workforce 146
Permanent Australian Defence Force 146
Reserves 148
Australian Public Service 149
Recruiting the people we need 150
Developing our people 152
Retaining our people 153
Defence culture 154
Looking after our people 156
The Defence community 159
Delivering the future workforce 160
Chapter Seven: Reform of Defence 165
The First Principles Review – The Government’s reform program 165
A strong strategic centre 168
Capability development life cycle 170
Corporate and military enablers 172
Implementing the First Principles Review 174
Chapter Eight: Funding Defence 177
The Government’s plan for funding Defence 177
The funding model 177
How will Defence funding be spent? 181
Budgeting in Defence 182
Chapter Nine: Implementing this Defence White Paper 185

No comments: